Dachshund Genetics

Dachshund Genetics:

A good breeder of any dog must know something about genetics. This page is to help those that

breed as a rare hobby or those that have a kennel and wish to learn more. Genetics are

essential to bettering the breed. Knowing what diseases can be carried or what color and/or

pattern combinations can negatively affect the breed are examples of why genetics are so

important. With such a variety of colors in the dachshund, there is a great deal to learn. I do

not know everything but I am always researching to improve my knowledge and breeding

practices. Some colors pose a health risks and we choose not to take those risks. Our goal is to

produce healthy puppies above all and that should be the goal of any one attempting to breed.

Every dog is made up of the same gene groups. These genes individually are called alleles and are

classified in groups called Locus. The difference in the various breeds of dogs is whether there

is any variation in each Locus. As you look into Dachshund genetics, you will see that all of these

Loci have some variation. Below will be each Locus explained and any variation to this breed.

But first, you need to understand the lingo of genetics and the basic truths if you are to ever

understand

what’s going on. You also need to understand that genetics are not guarantees, they

are statistical probabilities. Example: We know this to be truth, puppies are either male or

female – there is no gray area. We know that there is a 50% chance of having either a male or a

female. That doesn’t mean that 3 out of a litter of 6 will be female. There are no guarantees.

There are many genes that contribute to a dogs color and pattern and they play on each other,

so the possibilities are endless. Expectations are educated guesses. The great thing about

genetics is the surprise or the gratification of educated guesses being correct.

Language:

Allele:

A part of a gene. Every Dachshund has 2 alleles in each gene category, one inherited

from each parent. These alleles determine, in their combined state of 2, hair types, colors and

patterns.

Locus:

A gene category name. Consists of a group of alleles that play dominant and recessive to

each other.

Dominant Gene:

Visible on the dog and will show with only 1 allele from 1 parent, can not be

carried.

Recessive Gene:

Only visible with 2 alleles, one from each parent. Will not show if overpowered

by a dominant gene. Can be carried.

Incompletely Dominant Gene:

A gene that is dominant and will show but can be altered by

another gene that is recessive.

Incompletely Recessive Gene:

A gene that is recessive and alters a dominant or other

recessive gene. It does not show other than the results of the gene alterations.

Facts:

Genes that

can not be carried:

Dominant Red (Agouti Category (A) ), Full Pigmentation (Blue

Dilution (D) and Chinchilla Dilution Category (C) ), Brindle (Extension Category (E) ), Dapple

(Merle Category (M) ), Solid Color (White Spotting Category (S) ), Ticking (Ticking Category (T)

).

Genes that

can be carried:

Tan Points (Agouti Category (A) ), Black and Chocolate (Brown

Category (B) , Chinchilla Dilution (Albino Category (C) ), Blue Dilution (Blue)

Dilution Category (D) ), Normal Coat and Clear Recessive Red (Extension Category (E) ), No

Dappling (Merle Category (M) ), Irish Spotting, Piebald and Extreme White (White Spotting

Category (S) ), No Ticking (Ticking Category (T) ).

Some of these genes that can be carried are only carried to one other gene. These are what I

call the “middle genes”. They are dominant and recessive.

Sable/Wildboar is recessive to Dominant Red and dominant to Tan Points (Agouti (A) ), Black is

recessive to Dominant Red from Agouti (A) but dominant to Chocolate (Brown (B) ), Normal coat

is recessive to Brindle but dominant to Clear Recessive Red (Extension (E) ).

Dachshunds come in Smooth, Wire and Longhair.

Dachshund Colors

Red

Wild Boar/Sable (depending on hair type)

Wheaten

Recessive Red

Black and Tan

Chocolate and Tan

Cream

Blue and Tan

Isabella and Tan

Dachshund Patterns/Markings

Dapple

Double Dapple

Piebald (ticking and non)

Brindle

Or a combination of two

Agouti Catagory (Locus A)

Dominant Red (As) = This is the most dominant color gene. It is dominant to pretty much every

color, Sable and Tan Points, including other color categories.

AsAs or Asay or Asat

***

Wildboar/Sable (ay) = Wildboar/Sable is recessive to Dominant Red and dominant to Tan Points.

Being dachshunds can only be sable if they are long hair. It has been stated that Sable can not

be carried but according to this it can, only to Dominant Red.

ayay or ayat

***

Tan Points (at) = Tan Points are recessive to Dominant Red. This is why most red dachshunds do

not have tan points but can appear to have a lighter shading where tan points should be when

carried. Tan Points are incompletely recessive to Wildboar/Sable. That is why some

Wildboars/Sables have tan points and some do not. If the dog carries both alleles for tan

points, the Brown Category will take over as a dominant color and that’s how you get a Black or

Chocolate and Tan. It is believed that some other gene is responsible for the instance of a solid

black or solid chocolate dachshund. It overpowers the tan points.

atat

***

Brown Category (Locus B)

Black (B) = Black is dominant to chocolate in the Brown category but recessive to Dominant Red

(R) in the Agouti Category and recessive to Clear Recessive Red in the Extension Category.

BB or Bb

Chocolate (b) = Chocolate is recessive to all other colors in the Agouti, Brown and Clear

Recessive Red from the Extension Category. .

bb

***

These 2 Categories, Albino Dilution and Blue Dilution, effect Agouti, Brown and Clear Recessive

Red from the Extension Category. They determine if you see the basic colors above or change

into different colors based on the colors above.

Albino Dilution Category (Locus C)

Full Color (C) = Full Color is dominant to Chinchilla Dilution. Chinchilla Dilution can produce very

light reds if 1 allele is Chinchilla Dilution.

CC or Ccch

***

Chinchilla Dilution (cch) = Chinchilla Dilution is recessive to Full Color, producing light reds if one

allele is Chinchilla Dilution and creams as 2 alleles are Chinchilla Dilution. Chinchilla Dilution has

no effect on black (hair, nose or nails) but does effect Tan Points. That’s why creams have

black nails and noses and it is possible to have a black and cream; the cream overpowers the tan

points.

cchcch

***

Level Of Pigmentation (Locus D) Blue Dilution Category

Intense Pigmentation/Full Color (D) = Full Color is dominant to Blue Dilution. Blue Dilution

effects black pigment so a Black and Tan that carries Dilution; has 1 dilution allele, may have a

liver/bluish colored nose. Can result in very deep rich color such as a mahogany.

DD or Dd

***

Light Pigmentation/Blue Dilution (d) = Blue Dilution is recessive to Full Color. Blue Dilution does

not effect tan points but does effect black and chocolate pigment creating a blue or isabella

with tan points.

dd

***

Extension Category (Locus E)

Super Extension Mask (Em) = This is dominant to all other genes in this series. This produces a

black mask on the face area. This is not likely in a dachshund.

EmEm or EmE or Emebr or Eme

***

Solid Color (E) = Normal color is dominant to Clear Recessive Red and to Brindle. Normal color

includes all base coats and can have mixed black hairs within.

EE or Eebr or Ee

***

Brindle (ebr) = Brindle pattern is dominant to Normal Color and Clear Recessive Red. Brindle can

occur in any color and effects tan points with black stripes. In a Black and Tan, the Brindle will

only show up in the tan points. It has been said that brindle can not be carried but here shows

that it can and I have seen brindle pups come from 2 non brindle parents.

ebrebr or ebre

***

Clear Recessive Red (e) = Is the recessive gene of this group. This makes a red color have no

black in their coat at all, totally red and usually a light color but can range to very dark.

Recessive Red is dominant over the Brown Category when having both recessive alleles

ee

***

Graying (Locus G)

Graying (G) = Graying takes place steadily over the period of the dogs life.

GG or Gg

***

Non-Graying (g) = Recessive, dog does not gray over time.

gg

***

Merle Category (Locus M)

Dapple (D) = Dapple pattern is dominant to having No Dapples. When the sire gives a dapple gene

and the dam gives a dapple gene, it produces a double dapple. Double Dapple can cause puppies

to be blind or deaf. Dapple can not be carried.

DD or Dd

***

Non-Dapple (d) = No Dappling is recessive to Dappling.

dd

***

White Spotting Category (Locus S)

Solid (S) = Solid is dominant to any type of Piebald pattern; Irish Spotting, Piebald, and

Extream White.

SS or Si or Sp or Se

***

Irish Spotting (i) = Is incompletely recessive to Solid. This is where you have the required white

to be a piebald but no white crosses the back between the neck and withers.

ii

Piebald (p) = Is incompletely recessive to Solid. Piebald must be more than 50% white. The

white is on the neck, chest, all 4 legs, the underbody and tail tip.

pp

Extream White (e) = Is incompletely recessive to Solid. The entire body is white except the

head.

ee

***

Ticking Category (Locus T)

The ticking category on affects piebalds

Ticking (T) = Ticking is dominant on a piebald. Ticking is small spots of color in the white

portions. Can not be carried

TT or Tt

Non-Ticking (t) = Non-Ticking is recessive to Ticking pattern on piebalds.

What we feed…

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